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Bots in Production

Editing bots in the web editor is good for getting started quickly, but as Bots become more important you will want to manage them as part of your regular software development lifecycle. This means:

  • Storing bot code in source control (typically git)
  • Writing unit tests for your bots
  • Deploying your bots as part of your CI/CD pipeline.

This Guide will show you

  • How to set up a repository to host the source code for your Bots.
  • Write a new Bot in Typescript.
  • Create a new Bot resource and link it to your Typescript file.
  • Use the Medplum Command Line Interface (CLI) to deploy your Bot to production.

Setting up your Repository

The first thing we'll do is set up a Git repository to host your Bot code. While you can set up bots in any git repository, we provide a template Git repository to help you get started.

Clone the repo and install the dependencies

git clone my-bots
cd my-bots
npm install

Create a source file

After we've installed dependencies, we can write your Bot in any typescript file under the src/ directory.

As mentioned in Bot Basics, a bot is any Typescript file that contains a handler function with the following signature:

import { MedplumClient, BotEvent } from '@medplum/core';
export async function handler(medplum: MedplumClient, event: BotEvent): Promise<any> {
// Your code here

See the Bot Basics tutorial for more details about the arguments to handler.

The starter repository contains an example Bot in the examples directory called hello-patient.ts. You can copy this example file to get started on your own bots:

cd src
cp examples/hello-patient.ts my-first-bot.ts

You'll see that this creates a simple bot that logs the patient's name to the console. For more details on how this code works, check out the Bot Basics tutorial.

// src/my-first-bot.ts
import { BotEvent, MedplumClient } from '@medplum/core';
import { Patient } from '@medplum/fhirtypes';

export async function handler(medplum: MedplumClient, event: BotEvent): Promise<any> {
const patient = event.input as Patient;
const firstName =[0]?.given?.[0];
const lastName =[0]?.family;
console.log(`Hello ${firstName} ${lastName}!`);
return true;

Compiling your Bot

Congratulations! You’ve just written your first bot. Our next step will be to compile this code and link it to a Bot resource.

First, compile your code:

npm run build

This runs the tsc compiler to translate your Typescript code to Javascript.

Next, take a look at your dist/ directory and notice how there is now a file called my-first-bot.js with the compiled version of your code.

cd ..
ls dist

# my-first-bot.d.ts
# my-first-bot.js
# examples/
# ...

Linking your code to a Bot Resource

The next step will be to create a Bot resource using the Medplum App and link your code to the resource.

First, we'll have to create the resource in the Medplum App. If you haven't already done so, follow the instructions on the Bot Basics tutorial to create a new Bot resource.

Next, we need to tell the Medplum CLI which .ts and .js files are associated with the resource by editing the medplum.config.json field.

Open the the file medplum.config.json and add the following entry to the bots array.

"bots": [
"name": "my-first-bot",
"id": "<BOT_ID>",
"source": "src/my-first-bot.ts",
"dist": "dist/my-first-bot.js"
nameName of the bot used in the Medplum CLI (below). Note: This name can be whatever your want. It does not have to match the filename of the bot code, nor anything in the Medplum App
idThe Bot Resource id. Can be found by navigating to and clicking on the entry for the corresponding Bot. See the Bot Basics tutorial for more information
sourceThis is the location of the typescript source file for your bot. Note: Currently, Medplum only supports single-file Bots.
distThis is the location of the transpiled javascript file for your bot. For most setups, this will be in your dist directory of your package.

Setting up your Permissions

Because Bots contain important or sensitive code, it's important to prevent unauthorized users from modifying your Bots. Medplum uses the client credentials workflow authenticate the Medplum CLI.

First, you should create a Client Application on the Medplum Server by following these directions.

The Medplum CLI looks for two environment variables when authenticating: MEDPLUM_CLIENT_ID and MEDPLUM_CLIENT_SECRET.

You can set these on the command line using the export command in bash.


Alternatively, you can create a .env file to avoid having to re-export the environment variables in every new terminal. The example repository has a .env.example file you can copy to get started.

cp .env.example .env
# .env

Your .env file should never be checked into source control.

MEDPLUM_CLIENT_ID and MEDPLUM_CLIENT_SECRET should be considered sensitive security credentials and should never be shared in a publicly accessible store. The medplum-demo-bots repository adds .env to .gitignore by default.

Deploying your Bot

Now that your Bot is written and compiled, the resource is created, and your credentials are set, we can finally deploy our Bot to production using the Medplum CLI.

To deploy our bot, we will use the deploy-bot command.

npx medplum deploy-bot <bot-name>

Where <bot-name> is the name property that you set for your bot in medplum.config.json. In our example, this would be:

npx medplum deploy-bot my-first-bot

Running this command does two things:

  1. Save the Typescript source to the code property of your Bot resource
  2. Deploys your compiled Javascript code as an AWS Lambda function with your Medplum deployment.

There is a known timing issue with the deploy-bot command. If you see the following error, try running the command again. If it fails after 3 tries, please submit a bug report or contact us on Discord

Deploy error: {
resourceType: 'OperationOutcome',
issue: [ { severity: 'error', code: 'invalid', details: [Object] } ]

Deploying to Staging vs. Production

A common usage pattern is to set up two Medplum Projects for an application: A staging project for development and integration testing, and a production project to power workflows.

The same Bot source code can be deployed to multiple Medplum projects by creating two separate entries in medplum.config.json with different names, pointing to the same source/compiled files.

"bots": [
"name": "my-first-bot-staging",
"id": "<STAGING_BOT_ID>",
"source": "src/my-first-bot.ts",
"dist": "dist/my-first-bot.js"
"name": "my-first-bot-production",
"source": "src/my-first-bot.ts",
"dist": "dist/my-first-bot.js"

To deploy the latest Bot to staging:

npm run build
npx medplum deploy-bot my-first-bot-staging

To deploy the latest Bot to production:

npm run build
npx medplum deploy-bot my-first-bot-production

This pattern is especially powerful when deploying Bots as part of a CI pipeline.


As your Bots become more complex, integrating them into your software development workflow becomes crucial. Using the Medplum CLI allows you do integrate Bots into your regular code review process and deploy as part of your CI/CD pipelines.